Science Standard 5- Understands the genetic basis for the transfer of biological characteristics from one generation to the next. Benchmarks: Knows the chemical and structural properties of DNA and its role in specifying the characteristics of an organism; Knows ways in which genes may be altered and combined to create genetic variation with a species; Knows that mutations and new gene combinations may have positive, negative, or no effects on the organism
Science Standard 16- Understands the scientific enterprise. Benchmarks: Understands the ethical traditions associated with the scientific enterprise and that scientists who violate those traditions are censored by their peers; Knows that science and technology are essential social enterprises, but alone they can only indicate what can happen, not what should happen; Knows that creativity, imagination, and a good knowledge base are all required in the work of science and engineering
Technology Standard 3- Understands the relationships among science, technology, society, and the individual. Benchmarks: Knows that alternatives, risks, costs, and benefits must be considered when deciding on proposals to introduce new technologies or to curtail existing ones; Knows examples of advanced and emerging technologies and how they could impact society; Identifies the role of technology in a variety of careers
Language Arts Standard 1- Demonstrates competence in the general skills and strategies of the writing process. Benchmarks: Writes expository compositions; Writes persuasive compositions that evaluate, interpret, and speculate about problems/solutions and causes and effects
Language Arts Standard 4- Gathers and uses information for research purposes. Benchmarks: Uses a variety of news sources to gather information for research; Uses a variety of primary sources to gather information for research topics
Language Arts Standard 8- Demonstrates competence i speaking and listening as tools for learning. Benchmarks: Evaluates own and others’ effectiveness in group discussions and in formal presentations; Asks questions as a way to broaden and enrich classroom discussions
Later in the 20th century, H. L. A. Hart attacked Austin for his simplifications and Kelsen for his fictions in The Concept of Law .  Hart argued law is a system of rules, divided into primary (rules of conduct) and secondary ones (rules addressed to officials to administer primary rules). Secondary rules are further divided into rules of adjudication (to resolve legal disputes), rules of change (allowing laws to be varied) and the rule of recognition (allowing laws to be identified as valid). Two of Hart's students continued the debate: In his book Law's Empire , Ronald Dworkin attacked Hart and the positivists for their refusal to treat law as a moral issue. Dworkin argues that law is an " interpretive concept",  that requires judges to find the best fitting and most just solution to a legal dispute, given their constitutional traditions. Joseph Raz , on the other hand, defended the positivist outlook and criticised Hart's "soft social thesis" approach in The Authority of Law .  Raz argues that law is authority, identifiable purely through social sources and without reference to moral reasoning. In his view, any categorisation of rules beyond their role as authoritative instruments in mediation are best left to sociology , rather than jurisprudence.